Flowering plants, which are also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta are a varied family of land plants. They consist of 64 orders, 30,000 known species, and 416 families. Angiosperms are seed-producing plants. The term “angiosperm” indicates plants that have flowers and produce seeds enclosed within a carpel.
The term “angiosperm” comes from the Greek words “angeion” which means case and “sperma” which means seed. Flowering plants are said to have evolved at least 200 million years ago. The first fossils of flowering plants which were found are said to be around 125 million years old.
An average person knows very little about the life cycle of a flowering plant. To keep it simple, a flowering plant is a plant that produces flowers, which turn into fruits. If you are into gardening or if you want to know more about flowering plants, it is important to know about the life cycle of a flowering plant.
- GERMINATION: Germination is the process through which seeds grow into plants. Every seed contains an embryo, which will grow into a plant. When a seed is in the right conditions to grow, the process of germination begins. Seeds need the right amount of moisture, oxygen, and warmth in their environment in order to germinate.
- GROWTH: During the growth phase, the seed develops into a mature plant. The time period of growth can vary depending on the species of the plant. The plants begin to develop roots that run underground, the roots help to absorb the water and nutrients needed by the plants. The roots also provide the plants with stability.
Another important development during the growth phase is the development of leaves by the plants. Leaves help the plants in the process of photosynthesis and enable them to produce their own food. In flowering plants, the plant will begin to grow flower buds.
- FLOWERING: Once a plant matures, the flower buds turn into flowers. Flowers are very important in the life cycle of a flowering plant because this is where reproduction occurs. Reproduction in flowers occurs through the process of pollination and fertilization.
Within the flower, “stamen” is considered as the male part and “carpel” is considered to be the female part. Stamen produces small grains of pollen, and for a plant to become fertilized, these pollen grains must reach stigma (a part of the carpel). This can be made possible through the process of pollination.
The act of pollination can occur through different methods. Some plants can self pollinate, whereas others have to find their pollen from a different plant. Pollination can also occur through mediums like insects, birds, animals, and wind.
- SEED FORMATION: Seeds will begin to develop once the fertilization finishes. During this phase, in a flowering plant, the flowers will grow into fruits. The seeds will be sheltered inside the fruits, the fruits will protect the seeds from damage and help them reach the final stage of their life cycle.
- SEED DISPERSAL: The final stage is seed dispersal. Seed dispersal can happen through so many different mediums. Some seeds are eaten by birds or animals and excreted back into the soil. Some seeds are dispersed through wind and water. A seed’s goal is to find a suitable place to germinate and continue the cycle.
Now we know that angiosperm or a flowering plant are plants that produce flowers that grow into fruits. To understand it further, we can look at the examples of flowering plants. The most common examples of flowering plants are tomato and wheat. Roses, cactus, potato, hibiscus, and corn are other examples of flowering plants.